Miniature Swine as Endo-urological and Urological Models
The kidneys and urological plumbing system acts as the primary excretory system of the body and has great importance to maintain body fluid volumes and homeostasis or balance of the milieu intérieur (the environment within). In general, the pig has urological anatomy and physiology similar to humans. Recognizing this similarity, biomedical researchers have applied miniature and domestic swine as research models for endourology, incontinence and overactive bladder, nephrolithotomy, cancer drug screening in bladder, non-surgical device (ureteral double-J stents) studies, surgical renal transplant, intra-renal surgery, renal reflux, hydronephrosis, renal hypertension, renal ischemia and reperfusion, and general urological functional studies.
M. Michael Swindle, DVM, Professor and Chairman, Department of Comparative Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425; Larry D. Brown, DVM, PhD