Swine are prone to arrhythmias associated with manipulation of the heart and creation of heart failure models. It is better to prevent them by selection of appropriate anesthetic protocols and usage of adjunct agents for prevention of the arrhythmias. Discussion of the use of these agents is included in Swindle and Smith, 2015. Table 1 includes dosages of commonly used agents in cardiovascular surgery, interventional catheter protocols and heart failure models.
M. Michael Swindle, DVM, Diplomate ACLAM & ECLAM