Diabetes in Miniature Swine
Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder of humans and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is currently the 6th leading cause of death. Diabetes is characterized by abnormalities of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and long-term complications including retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and premature atherosclerosis. More than 90 percent of the patients with this disease are categorized as having non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), adult onset or type II diabetes (T2D). NIDDM is a disorder resulting from varied degrees of insulin resistance, which is often associated with impaired insulin secretion. The incidence of NIDDM increases with age and approximately 80 percent of type II diabetic patients are overweight. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or Type I diabetes (T1D) is a disorder caused by the destruction of insulin-producing endocrine cells within the pancreas and currently considered to be the result of an autoimmune process. As a result of the insulin production deficit, long-term complications, especially cardiovascular disease and kidney failure, invariably occur to some extent in most patients.